Men can also get osteoporosis; have nuts, dairy products, veggies to reduce bone loss

Osteoporotic bones become porous and weaker, increasing the risk of fractures.

Getty Images
Avoid dieting and weight reduction programmes. Have a diet that includes protein, fats, vitamins and minerals.
By Dr Santosh Hakkalamani

Bone density is important for overall health. Osteoporosis develops when bone density decreases. The body reabsorbs more bone tissue and produces less to replace it. The condition tends to creep up on people undetected. Most people don't realise they have seriously low bone density until they've had their first fracture. That's why osteoporosis is sometimes referred to as the "silent disease".

With age, people tend to lose bone mass and this is especially seen in post-menopausal women. Osteoporosis is often considered a woman's disease, but older men are also affected by bone-thinning condition. Around 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men over 50 years of age experience bone fractures due to osteoporosis. This is why specialists have taken a particular interest in identifying all modifiable risk factors for bone loss.


Osteoporotic bones become porous and weaker, increasing the risk of fractures, especially around the hip, spine and wrists. Though osteoporosis is natural, age-related and hormone-related, there are things we can do to prevent this.

- Finding strategies that may optimise bone health in pre- and post-menopausal women is a priority. Researchers have shown that a lower rate of hip bone loss, in particular, contributed to around 39% of the reduction in mortality. This should encourage people with osteoporosis or at risk of a fracture to seek treatment - and commit to taking it.

- Calcium is the primary nutrient for bone health. The best way to absorb calcium is to consume small amounts throughout the day, rather than eating one high-calcium meal per day. It's no surprise that the superstar of foods for osteoporosis is milk and milk products. Go for low-fat or skim milk. Vitamin K-2 plays an essential role in bone health by reducing calcium loss and helping minerals bind to the bones. Vegetables are low in calories and provide vitamins, minerals and fibers that are good for bones. One study showed that vitamin C may help protect bones from damage. Eating yellow and green vegetables can benefit most people. Research findings suggest that a high-quality, anti-inflammatory diet - which is typically rich in fruit, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and nuts - may be especially important for younger women and may reduce bone loss in some women.
ADVERTISEMENT

World Nutrition Day: Proteins, Vitamins, Calcium And Other Nutrients You Need For A Balanced Diet
1/8
Too busy to prioritise what you eat? It just needs a conscious thought before eating any meal and basic understanding of different kinds of food and nutrients like Vitamin C, Vitamin A, iron, calcium, protein, energy and folic acid.

It is important to consume food that can provide good nutrition for a healthy lifestyle.

The Indian dietary guidelines recommend that a balanced diet should provide around 50-60% of total calories from carbohydrates, preferably complex carbohydrates, about 10-15% from proteins, and 20-30% from both visible and invisible fats. A balance diet should also provide vitamins and minerals along with dietary fibres and antioxidants.

Dr Rajan Sankar, Senior Advisor - Nutrition at Tata Trusts, shares what one needs to eat to get started.
Too busy to prioritise what you eat? It just needs a conscious thought before eating any meal and basic understanding of different kinds of food and nutrients like Vitamin C, Vitamin A, iron, calcium..
Read More
Carbohydrates are either simple or complex and are a major source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in fruits, vegetables, etc. while complex carbohydrates abound in cereals, roots, tubers, grains, etc. In the Indian diet, 70-80% of total dietary calories are derived from carbohydrates present in plant foods such as cereals, millets and pulses.

Also, fats - often termed 'bad' - are essential like other macronutrients. They are needed for energy, absorbing vitamin, and protecting the heart and brain health. Bad fats such as trans-fats and saturated fats, generally found in vegetable shortenings, butter, fried foods, hydrogenated oils are rightly blamed for weight gain and clogged arteries. But 'good' fats, such as unsaturated fats and omega 3, present in nuts and oil seeds, play a major role in managing mood, fighting fatigue, and even controlling weight.

Eat a lot of cereals, tubers, rice, wheat, potatoes, almonds, walnuts, coconut, groundnuts, oil seeds, vegetables oil, ghee, etc.
Carbohydrates are either simple or complex and are a major source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in fruits, vegetables, etc. while complex carbohydrates abound in cereals, roots, tubers, g..
Read More
Proteins, the 'body-building foods', are primary structural and functional components of every living cell. Milk, meat, fish and eggs and plant foods such as pulses and legumes are rich in protein. A typical Indian diet is mainly vegetarian. Therefore, a combination of cereals, millets and pulses must be eaten as it provides most of the amino-acids, which complement each other to provide better quality proteins.

One should also eat Bengal gram, green gram, lentils, red gram, cheese, khoya, milk powder, and nuts and oilseeds like groundnuts, cashew nuts, almond.
Proteins, the 'body-building foods', are primary structural and functional components of every living cell. Milk, meat, fish and eggs and plant foods such as pulses and legumes are rich in protein. ..
Read More
Vitamins and minerals, and essential micronutrients, are required by the body in small amounts. They are essential for maintenance of the structure of skin, bones, nerves, eyes, brain and organs, as well as battling infections. Deficiencies, however, can lead to severe problems. The best way to ensure healthy growth and development is to consume a wide variety of fresh foods like leafy vegetables like ambat chukka, coriander, spinach, mint, amaranth, fenugreek, radish leaves and curry leaves, pumpkin, green chilies, carrots, fruits like mangoes and papaya, eggs, meats, dairy products, pulses and cereals.
Vitamins and minerals, and essential micronutrients, are required by the body in small amounts. They are essential for maintenance of the structure of skin, bones, nerves, eyes, brain and organs, as ..
Read More
It's important to limit use of butter, refined flour, sugars, ready-to-eat fast food, and processed food. Cut down salt, soft drinks and fatty foods. Preferably, fill your plate with seasonal and locally available fruits and vegetables.

To have a good intake of folic acid, green leafy vegetables like amaranth, ambat chukka, mint and spinach, and pulses like Bengalgram, blackgram, greengram and redgram.
It's important to limit use of butter, refined flour, sugars, ready-to-eat fast food, and processed food. Cut down salt, soft drinks and fatty foods. Preferably, fill your plate with seasonal and lo..
Read More
Make sure half of your plate consists of fruits and vegetables. Also, don't forget to include whole grains and cereals.

Iron deficiency can lead to extreme fatigue. To keep the haemoglobin level in desired levels, include iron-rich foods like amaranth, bengalgram, leaves, cauliflower, greens, radish leaves
Make sure half of your plate consists of fruits and vegetables. Also, don't forget to include whole grains and cereals. Iron deficiency can lead to extreme fatigue. To keep the haemoglobin level in ..
Read More
While it is important to eat macronutrients (carbohydrate, proteins and fats) in relatively large quantities, it is sufficient to consume micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in rather small quantities.

In order to get Vitamin C, eat more of citrus fruits, amla, guava, lemon, tomatoes, etc.
While it is important to eat macronutrients (carbohydrate, proteins and fats) in relatively large quantities, it is sufficient to consume micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in rather small quant..
Read More
Always choose healthier options when eating out, and read the nutrition labels and ingredient list when buying food.

For a calcium-rich diet, eat cereals and legumes, ragi, kidney beans, soyabean, milk and milk products, nuts and oilseeds like coconut dry, almond, gingelly seeds, sunflower seeds.
Always choose healthier options when eating out, and read the nutrition labels and ingredient list when buying food. For a calcium-rich diet, eat cereals and legumes, ragi, kidney beans, soyabean, ..
Read More

- A healthy weight is essential for bone density - people who are underweight have a higher risk of developing bone disease, while excess body weight puts additional stress on the bones.

- Dieting and weight reduction programmes that encourage very low calorie diets can lead to bone density loss. Any diet should include a balance of protein, fats, vitamins and minerals.

- Studies also indicate that omega-3 fatty acids play a role in maintaining bone density. Omega-3 fatty acids are present in a variety of foods such as salmon, mackerel, nuts and seeds.

ADVERTISEMENT
- Magnesium and Zinc both are necessary in bone metabolism. Foods rich in magnesium and zinc include nuts, legumes, seeds and whole grains. Almonds support bone health in multiple ways. As with some other nuts and seeds, almonds are chock-full of calcium, magnesium and protein.

- Both weight-lifting and strength training will promote new bone growth and maintain the bone structure.

ADVERTISEMENT
The Ultimate Healthy-Eating Guide: Snacks That Will Help You Stay In Shape
1/8
Diet food contains fewer calories, and serves as a healthier alternative to conventional snacks such as potato chips, burgers and other fast food.

Experts at salebhai.com have listed some of the healthy diet snacks and food that could be consumed on different days of the week.
Diet food contains fewer calories, and serves as a healthier alternative to conventional snacks such as potato chips, burgers and other fast food. Experts at salebhai.com have listed some of the hea..
Read More
Diet beaten rice (chivda) is a mixed snack popular across India and often served with hot beverages. It is made of ingredients such as flattened rice, dried peas, raisins, and so on.

Available in different combinations,it is a healthy treat as most of the ingredients are either dried or baked, and contain little to no oil or fat.
Diet beaten rice (chivda) is a mixed snack popular across India and often served with hot beverages. It is made of ingredients such as flattened rice, dried peas, raisins, and so on. Available in di..
Read More
While fried potato chips top the list of unhealthy foods in the world, its diet version is the opposite, without compromising on taste. Diet potato chips are mostly baked and use little to no oil, and make for a yummy snack between meals.
While fried potato chips top the list of unhealthy foods in the world, its diet version is the opposite, without compromising on taste. Diet potato chips are mostly baked and use little to no oil, an..
Read More
Beaten rice (chivda) is the main ingredient in poha. When lightly roasted, it can be mixed with various spices and consumed as a healthy snack all through the day.
Beaten rice (chivda) is the main ingredient in poha. When lightly roasted, it can be mixed with various spices and consumed as a healthy snack all through the day.
A container of masala chickpeas packs several vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and protein, keeping one fuller for longer.
A container of masala chickpeas packs several vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and protein, keeping one fuller for longer.
Quinoa has become popular over the years both as a superfood and a versatile ingredient. Native to South America, it is prepared by being boiled in water. The nutrient-rich grain is mostly consumed as part of a salad, but there are treats such as quinoa puffs that are equally healthy and delicious.
Quinoa has become popular over the years both as a superfood and a versatile ingredient. Native to South America, it is prepared by being boiled in water. The nutrient-rich grain is mostly consumed a..
Read More
A favourite among gym goers and fitness aficionados, muesli or granola bars are the perfect choice that also boost the metabolism. A great alternative to candy bars, they can satiate anyone's sweet tooth or sudden cravings without any adverse effects to health.

Muesli bars are made up of refined flour, hazelnut, cashew, almond, dark chocolate, honey, oats, butter, and sugar.
A favourite among gym goers and fitness aficionados, muesli or granola bars are the perfect choice that also boost the metabolism. A great alternative to candy bars, they can satiate anyone's sweet t..
Read More
Although a new entrant in the list of healthiest foods, kale chips have quickly become one of the most tried new ingredients in the global food market.

A close cousin of the cabbage family, kale has a high fibre content and low calories, making it a great option.
Although a new entrant in the list of healthiest foods, kale chips have quickly become one of the most tried new ingredients in the global food market. A close cousin of the cabbage family, kale has..
Read More

- Psychosocial stress may increase fracture risk through degradation of bone mineral density. Bone degradation happens through dysregulation of hormone secretion, including cortisol, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids. This supports community-building social stress interventions in postmenopausal women to potentially limit bone loss.

- Do not smoke, and consume alcohol only in moderation. Chronic, heavy drinking can lead to osteoporosis.

(The author is Consultant - Orthopaedic Surgeon at BGS Gleneagles Global Hospital, Bangalore)
(Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this column are that of the writer. The facts and opinions expressed here do not reflect the views of www.economictimes.com.)
Download
The Economic Times Business News App
for the Latest News in Business, Sensex, Stock Market Updates & More.
READ MORE
ADVERTISEMENT

READ MORE:

LOGIN & CLAIM

50 TIMESPOINTS

More from our Partners

Loading next story
Text Size:AAA
Success
This article has been saved

*

+